Richard Wagner (1813-1883) was invited to come to live in Munich shortly after Ludwig II was crowned king in 1864. However, after only 18 months, he was forced to leave this beautiful bavarian city because he was accused of influencing the king’s politics and… of having an affair with Cosima von Bülow, Franz Liszt’s daughter and Hans von Bülow’s (musical director of the opera house) wife. Naughty, naughty! For these reasons, the Wagner Festival Hall, renowned for its acoustics, stands today in Bayreuth rather than at the Gasteiger Höhe in Munich, as had originally been planned. Nonetheless, five of Wagner’s operas were premiered in Munich: Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (traditionally the last performance of the season at the Bayerische Staatsoper), Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, and Die Feen (even though it was one of Wagner’s earliest works, The Fairies was only performed after his death).
Das Rheingold (The Rhine Gold ou «L’or du Rhin») is the first of the four operas that constitute Richard Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung ou «L’anneau de Nibelung»). It was originally written as an introduction to the tripartite Ring, but the cycle is now generally regarded as consisting of four individual operas.
Das Rheingold was presented for the first time at the National Theatre in Munich on 22 September 1869, with August Kindermann in the role of Wotan, Heinrich Vogl as Loge, and Karl Fischer (not to be confused with Karl von Fischer, the first architect of the opera house!) as Alberich. Wagner wanted this opera to be premiered as part of the entire cycle, but was forced to allow the performance at the insistence of his patron King Ludwig II of Bavaria. On 13 August 1876, the opera received its premiere as part of the complete cycle in the Bayreuther Festspielhaus.
Considerably shorter than its three successors, Das Rheingold consists of four scenes performed without a break (approximately 3 hours).
The scale of the whole work is established in the prelude (over 136 bars) beginning with a low E flat, and building in more and more elaborate figurations of the chord of E flat major, to portray the motion of the river Rhine. It is considered the best-known drone piece in the concert repertory, lasting approximately four minutes.
(Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Sir Georg Solti.)
The curtain rises to show, at the bottom of the Rhine, the three Rhine maidens, Woglinde, Wellgunde, and Flosshilde, playing together. The key shifts to A flat as Woglinde begins an innocent song whose melody is frequently used to characterise the Rhine maidens later in the cycle. Alberich, a Nibelung dwarf, appears from a deep chasm and tries to woo them. Struck by Alberich’s ugliness, the Rhine maidens mock his advances and he grows angry. As the sun begins to rise, the maidens praise the golden glow atop a nearby rock; Alberich asks what it is. The Rhine maidens tell him about the Rhine gold, which their father has ordered them to guard: it can be made into a magic ring which will let its bearer rule the world, but only by someone who first renounces love. They think they have nothing to fear from the lustful dwarf, but Alberich, embittered by their mockery, curses love (So verfluch’ich die Liebe), seizes the gold and returns to his chasm, leaving them screaming in dismay.
(Ring de Copenhague, extrait de la scène 1)
(Ring du MET de NYC, mise en scène plus traditionnelle!)
Wotan, ruler of the Gods, is asleep on a mountaintop with Fricka, his wife. Fricka awakes and sees a magnificent castle behind them. She wakes Wotan and points out that their new home has been completed. The giants Fasolt and Fafner built the castle; in exchange Wotan has offered them Fricka’s sister Freia, the goddess of youth, beauty and feminine love. Fricka has concerns for her sister, but Wotan is confident that they will not have to give Freia away, because he has dispatched his clever servant Loge to search the world for something else to give the giants instead.
Freia rushes onstage in a panic, followed by Fasolt and Fafner. Fasolt demands payment for their finished work. He points out that Wotan’s authority is sustained by the treaties carved into his spear, including his contract with the giants, which Wotan therefore cannot violate. Donner (god of thunder) and Froh (god of spring) arrive to defend their sister Freia, but Wotan stops them; as ruler of the Gods, he cannot permit the use of force to break the agreement. Hoping Loge will arrive with the alternative payment he promised, Wotan tries to stall.
Loge finally returns with a discouraging report: there is nothing that men will accept in exchange for feminine love, and, by extension, nothing the giants would accept in exchange for Freia. Loge tells them that he was able to find only one instance where someone willingly gave up love for something else: Alberich the dwarf has renounced love, stolen the Rheingold and made a powerful magic ring out of it. A general discussion of the ring ensues and everyone finds good reasons for wanting it. Fafner makes a counteroffer: the giants will accept the ring and the Nibelung’s gold in payment, instead of Freia. When Wotan tries to haggle, the giants depart, taking Freia with them as hostage.
Freia’s golden apples had kept the Gods eternally young; in her absence, they begin to age and weaken. In order to win Freia back, Wotan resolves to follow Loge down into the earth, in pursuit of the gold.
An orchestral interlude follows, representing the descent of Loge and Wotan into Nibelheim. As the orchestra fades, it gives way to a choir of 18 tuned anvils (ou enclume, indicated in the score with specific size, quantity and pitch) beating out the dotted rhythm of the Nibelung theme to give a stark depiction of the toiling of the enslaved dwarves.
In Nibelheim, Alberich has enslaved the rest of the Nibelung dwarves with the power of the ring. He has forced his brother Mime, the most skillful smith, to create a magic helmet, the Tarnhelm. Alberich demonstrates the Tarnhelm’s power by making himself invisible, the better to torment his subjects. (The Tarnhelm can also change the wearer’s shape and teleport him long distances. Sounds like Harry Potter, no? Mon petit doigt me dit que J.K. Rowling s’est sans doute inspirée de Wagner!)
Wotan and Loge arrive and happen upon Mime, who tells them about Alberich’s forging of the ring and the misery of the Nibelungs under his rule. Alberich returns, driving his slaves to pile up a huge mound of gold. When they have finished, he dismisses them and turns his attention to the two visitors. He boasts to them about his plans to conquer the world. Loge asks how he can protect himself against a thief while he sleeps. Alberich says the Tarnhelm would hide him, by allowing him to turn invisible or change his form. Loge says he doesn’t believe it and requests a demonstration, that he transform into a giant snake. Alberich complies and Loge acts suitably impressed. He then asks if he can also reduce his size, which would be very useful for hiding, but which would be too difficult he thinks. Thus goaded Alberich transforms himself into a toad and the two gods quickly seize him, tie him up, and drag him up to the mountain top.
On the mountaintop, Wotan and Loge force Alberich to exchange his wealth for his freedom. They untie his right hand, and he uses the ring to summon his Nibelung slaves, who bring the hoard of gold. After the gold has been delivered, he asks for the return of the Tarnhelm, but Loge says that it is part of his ransom. Finally, Wotan demands the ring. Alberich refuses, but Wotan seizes it from his finger and puts it on his own. Alberich is crushed by his loss, and before he leaves he lays a curse on the ring: until it returns to him, whoever does not possess it will desire it, and whoever possesses it will live in anxiety and will eventually be killed and robbed of it by its next owner. (Now, it sounds like Lord of the Ring!) Alberich’s discordant “Death-Curse” leitmotif is one of the few leitmotifs which occur regularly and unchanged in all four parts of the Ring Cycle.
The gods reconvene. Fasolt and Fafner return, carrying Freia. Reluctant to release Freia, Fasolt insists that the gold be heaped high enough to hide her from view. They pile up the gold, and Wotan is forced to relinquish the Tarnhelm to help cover Freia completely. However, Fasolt spots a remaining crack in the gold, through which Freia’s eye can be seen. He demands that Wotan fill the crack by yielding the ring. Loge reminds all present that the ring rightly belongs to the Rhine maidens. Wotan angrily and defensively declares that he will keep it for his own. The giants seize Freia and start to leave, this time forever.
Suddenly, Erda, the earth goddess, a primeval goddess older than Wotan, appears out of the ground. She warns Wotan of impending doom and urges him to give up the cursed ring. Troubled, Wotan calls the giants back and surrenders the ring. The giants release Freia and begin dividing the treasure, but they quarrel over the ring itself. Fafner clubs Fasolt to death (the orchestra repeats the “Death-Curse” leitmotif). Wotan, horrified, realizes that Alberich’s curse has terrible power. Loge remarks that Wotan is indeed a lucky fellow; his enemies are killing each other for the gold he gave up.
(Hanna Schwarz as Erda, Bayerische Staatsoper 1989)
At last, the gods prepare to enter their new home. Donner summons a thunderstorm to clear the air (”Heda! Heda! Hedo!”). After the storm has ended, Froh creates a rainbow bridge that stretches to the gate of the castle. Wotan leads them across the bridge to the castle, which he names Valhalla. Fricka asks him about the name, and he replies enigmatically that its meaning will become clear when his plans come to fruition.
(À mon avis l’un des moments les plus enivrants de l’opéra à 6:07!)
Loge, who knows that the end of the gods is coming, does not follow the others into Valhalla; he tells the audience that he is tempted to destroy the gods and all they have deceitfully acquired. Far below, the Rhine maidens mourn the loss of their gold and proclaim that the glory of the gods is only an illusion.
The curtain falls.